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Booby Feet: Why Blue? Why Red?


I went to the Galapagos Islands in 2005 and I’ve been sending curious, wildlife-passionate travelers to see the blue-footed boobies there ever since. Yet I’ve always wondered what makes the feet of these birds this crazy color of blue? For that matter, why do some boobies living just a few islands away have red feet? Inquiring minds want to know! It’s time for some real answers.


In Short: The blue feet of the blue-footed booby are a result of their diet and genetics. The blue coloration comes from pigments found in the booby's diet, particularly from fish such as sardines and anchovies. These pigments accumulate in the booby's tissues, including its feet, leading to the distinctive blue color. Amazing! I knew flamingos were pink because of the shrimp they eat yet I never paused to consider that booby food is actually blue.


The intensity of the blue coloration can also be an indicator of the bird's health and fitness, making it an important visual cue during courtship displays. Male blue-footed boobies often use their vibrant blue feet as part of elaborate mating rituals to attract females.



The exact reason why the blue-footed booby evolved this trait isn’t entirely clear, but it likely serves as a signal of health and reproductive fitness, playing a role in mate selection. Additionally, the blue coloration might also help with heat regulation, as the feet can be lifted to reduce heat loss in hot climates.


So now we know how the blue feet become blue, but what about those red-footed boobies just a boat ride away on Genovesa Island (also known as Tower Island)?

The red coloration of the feet of red-footed boobies is also attributed to their diet and genetics. Like blue-footed boobies, red-footed boobies consume a diet rich in fish, which contains redish carotenoid pigments. These pigments accumulate in the bird's tissues, including the feet, resulting in the distinctive red hue.



Similar to blue-footed boobies, the intensity of the red coloration in the feet of red-footed boobies can also serve as an indicator of health and reproductive fitness. During courtship displays, male red-footed boobies may use their red feet as part of elaborate mating rituals to attract females.


As with the blue-footed boobies, the exact evolutionary reason for the red coloration of the feet in red-footed boobies is not entirely clear. However, it likely serves as a signal of health and reproductive fitness, aiding in mate selection. Additionally, the red coloration might have thermoregulatory benefits in hot climates, similar to the role of the blue feet in blue-footed boobies.


Charles Darwin studied the boobies, both red and blue during his famous voyage to the Galapagos on the HMS Beagle in the 1830s. Darwin's observations of the wildlife, including the various species of finches, tortoises, and birds such as the boobies, played a crucial role in the development of his theory of evolution by natural selection.

It’s fascinating to note that these two bird species lived so close together in the Galapagos yet ended up eating such different diets.


Right out of the Charles Darwin playbook, the coexistence of blue-footed boobies and red-footed boobies in the Galapagos Islands despite consuming different diets can be attributed to ecological niche differentiation. 


In ecological terms, a niche refers to the role that an organism plays within its ecosystem, including its habitat, behavior, and interactions with other species. When two species share the same habitat, they often evolve to occupy different ecological niches to reduce competition for resources.


Blue-footed boobies primarily feed on fish, particularly species like sardines and anchovies, which they catch by plunge diving into the ocean. Their hunting strategy and specialized beak and feet adaptations make them efficient fish hunters.

On the other hand, red-footed boobies have a more varied diet, including fish but also squid and other small marine creatures. They are known for their ability to forage over larger areas and dive deeper into the water compared to blue-footed boobies, which allows them to access a broader range of prey.



This differentiation in diet likely evolved to minimize competition for resources between the two species, allowing them to coexist in the same habitat without directly competing for the same food sources. By occupying different dietary niches, they can utilize the available resources more efficiently, reducing the risk of resource depletion and enhancing their chances of survival.


Overall, the coexistence of blue-footed and red-footed boobies in the Galapagos Islands showcases how species can adapt and evolve to occupy different ecological niches, enabling them to thrive in the same ecosystem.


Ready to see both blue-footed boobies and red-footed boobies for yourself? Explore our outstanding collection of Galapagos ships and then Contact us and we’ll help you locate a ship that’s just right for you. 


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